Faster, Cheaper, as Safe & Secure as Ethereum


dYdX has recently launched their perpetual contracts platform, powered by the StarkEx scalability engine in ZK-Rollup mode (i.e. with on-chain data). StarkEx provides scalability and lower gas costs for users, but it also enables building a better system: implementing new business logic, including new features that were too expensive without a layer-2 solution.
In this blog post we will discuss how StarkEx uses oracle prices in a more effective and secure manner.

Oracles on StarkEx

Oracles are an essential part of any permissionless blockchain, as they allow dApps to rely on data that is external to the blockchain. …

The First L2 Platform for NFTs

StarkEx-Powered Immutable X is now on Ethereum Mainnet, providing NFT minting and trading at scale. Immutable X — the first L2 platform for NFTs — offers unmatched scalability, near-instant UX, as well as affordable minting & trading.

This is the third use case for StarkEx, our L2 scalability engine — following transfers and spot trading (DeversiFi) and perpetual trading (dYdX).

Immutable & L2 Scaling

Immutable was the first to achieve wide adoption for a blockchain game with Gods Unchained. The Gods Unchained Genesis season sold out at 6M cards for a total value of $6.2M. On Ethereum, great success comes with great gas costs…

StarkEx for Perpetual Trading


Eight months ago we announced our cooperation with dYdX. Following the announcement, we worked closely with the dYdX team to port their perpetual contracts trading platform to run over StarkEx, our L2 scalability engine.

Supporting perpetual contracts is a major enhancement of StarkEx, as up until now it proved computational integrity only for spot trading. StarkEx will continue to evolve, to support lending, futures trading, and — imminently — NFTs. This is also the first time that StarkEx provides scalability in a ZK-Rollup mode (on-chain data) in production.

Feature Velocity thanks to Cairo

This system was developed using Cairo, our Turing-complete language scaling applications using…

A DeFi-friendly L2 AMM


  • Capital efficiency is a major source of concern when considering L2 solutions for DeFi.
  • The reason: it is assumed that liquidity will fragment between L1 and multiple L2 solutions.
  • Presenting Caspian: We propose a new L2-powered AMM design. This AMM leaves assets on L1, resulting in defragmented liquidity, and better capital efficiency.
  • StarkEx 3.0 (Coming in June 2021) will support Caspian.
    It will include two new primitives required for implementing Caspian: L1 Limit Orders, and Batch-Long Flash Loans.


AMMs are an important DeFi tool. Its core qualities — autonomy, composability & liquidity bootstrapping — make AMMs the first building block…

A Building Block for L1-L2 Interoperability

This post will present the solution that StarkEx offers for supporting Fast Withdrawals: the ability to withdraw funds from L2 to any L1 address, in blockchain time. This solution is independent of the frequency with which validity proofs are generated by the L2 Operator.

The Fast Withdrawal functionality already runs on Ethereum Mainnet in StarkEx (starting StarkEx 2.0, Dec 2020) and powers DeversiFi’s and dYdX’s Exchanges.

The solution below can be applied to a broad range of use-cases, beyond Fast Withdrawals. Let us first describe the abstract need.

The Need

Blockchains allow trustless interaction between two parties, Alice and Bob. Alice may…

StarkWare & Aztec Join Forces to Bring Forward an Innovative License for ZKP Provers


  • StarkWare is announcing the Polaris License, which relies on the immutability of permissionless blockchains.
  • This is the license we intend to use for Prover source code made available to the ecosystem.
  • Anyone may use and modify the Prover, as long as proofs are sent to a whitelisted Verifier on-chain; the whitelist of Verifiers is an append-only list.
  • We collaborated with Aztec, developers of PLONK, and our talented competitors, in defining and adopting this license.


This post describes the new Polaris license under which StarkWare plans to release source code for its STARK prover; Aztec will use the same Polaris license…

Enjoy the security and feel of Ethereum with the scale of a ZK-Rollup


We’re building StarkNet in four steps:

  • Step 0 — Foundations (completed*)
  • Step I — Planets: Single-App Rollups
  • Step II — Constellations: Multi-App Rollups
  • Step III — Universe: A Decentralized Rollup

We expect to have Step I deployed in a few short months, and be well on our way to Steps II & III by the end of 2021.


StarkWare is building StarkNet, a decentralized, permissionless and censorship-resistant STARK-powered L2 ZK-Rollup that supports general-computation over Ethereum. It is based on the Turing-complete Cairo language.

Developers, users and StarkNet…

Bringing Scalability to Existing L1 Projects


  • DeFi’s original values were about financial inclusion and open access. As gas price rises, DeFi is turning into a whale game.
  • L1 Pools (such as Vaults in YFI) effectively scale DeFi, as they are cheaper and simpler.
  • Nevertheless, joining, leaving, and rebalancing a Pool on L1 is still expensive
  • StarkEx fixes this. The proposed solution is called DeFi Pooling, a new way to split the L1 bill and make position rebalancing available on L2.
  • StarkEx 3.0 (Coming in May 2021) will support the new primitive required to enable it: L1 Limit Order.


DeFi aims to improve financial inclusion thanks to…

Cairo Toolchain 0.0.1

A few months ago we announced Cairo, our Turing-complete framework for proving general computations. Since then we held the Cairo Genesis Workshop and presented Cairo at ZK Summit 6. Today, we are releasing the first version of the Cairo Toolchain.

Why are We Releasing this Toolchain?

When we announced Cairo, the response was overwhelmingly positive — there seems to be a real need in the ecosystem for the solutions Cairo can offer. We are releasing this toolchain because we’d like to help people learn Cairo, play around with it, and take part in making it better.

What Are We Releasing?



The Cairo compiler is responsible for translating Cairo programs into…

The first Cairo based system is now in production

Five months ago we launched StarkEx 1.0, the first production-grade STARK system, powering DeversiFi’s self-custodial exchange. Immediately after launch we started developing the new and improved version, StarkEx 2.0, which rolled out today. This version introduces a number of significant improvements in different aspects of the system.

Read the docs

Cairo: One Verifier to Rule them All — StarkEx 2.0 is the first system in production to be programmed in Cairo, our new Turing-complete, programming language for generating STARK proofs. The soon to be launched exchanges of our partners, ImmutableX and dYdX will also be powered by Cairo. …


bringing scalability and privacy to a blockchain near you

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