A Cross-L2 AMM


  • AMMs on L2 face a liquidity fragmentation problem

dAMM (formerly known as Caspian)

We first presented dAMM in March 2021 as Caspian but, due to a trademark issue, Caspian was renamed (long live dAMM). This release of dAMM represents a collaboration between…

Empower L2 users to easily interact with L1


  • StarkEx 3.0 is live on Mainnet

Main Features

1. StarkEx L1 Vaults

StarkEx 3.0 is the latest release of StarkEx, StarkWare’s scalability engine. It is now live on Ethereum Mainnet, supporting seamless interaction flows with Ethereum L1.

For the first time, Ethereum smart contracts…

Featuring: L1<>L2 Interaction, On-Chain Data, and the Growing StarkNet Ecosystem


StarkNet Alpha 1 has two new features:

  • L1<>L2 interaction


At the beginning of the year, we announced that StarkWare is building StarkNet, a permissionless decentralized STARK-based ZK-Rollup¹ operating as an L2 network over Ethereum. StarkNet allows any dApp to achieve unlimited scale for its computation — without compromising Ethereum’s composability and security.

Last month, StarkNet Alpha 0 was released to the world. For the first time, developers are able to write any smart contract and deploy it, permissionlessly, to a ZK-Rollup. Users are able to send transactions to the network, Ethereum-style.

Today we are releasing a new version…

The First Step to a Permissionless ZK-Rollup


  • StarkNet Planets Alpha — the first step on our road to Mainnet — is now live on Ropsten!


We announced the roadmap for StarkNet in Jan 2021. The Holy Grail of scalability solutions would support (i) arbitrary smart contracts, with (ii) composability, (iii) operated over a decentralized network. Today we announce the deployment…

Faster, Cheaper, as Safe & Secure as Ethereum


dYdX has recently launched their perpetual contracts platform, powered by the StarkEx scalability engine in ZK-Rollup mode (i.e. with on-chain data). StarkEx provides scalability and lower gas costs for users, but it also enables building a better system: implementing new business logic, including new features that were too expensive without a layer-2 solution.
In this blog post we will discuss how StarkEx uses oracle prices in a more effective and secure manner.

Oracles on StarkEx

Oracles are an essential part of any permissionless blockchain, as they allow dApps to rely on data that is external to the blockchain. …

The First L2 Platform for NFTs

StarkEx-Powered Immutable X is now on Ethereum Mainnet, providing NFT minting and trading at scale. Immutable X — the first L2 platform for NFTs — offers unmatched scalability, near-instant UX, as well as affordable minting & trading.

This is the third use case for StarkEx, our L2 scalability engine — following transfers and spot trading (DeversiFi) and perpetual trading (dYdX).

Immutable & L2 Scaling

Immutable was the first to achieve wide adoption for a blockchain game with Gods Unchained. The Gods Unchained Genesis season sold out at 6M cards for a total value of $6.2M. On Ethereum, great success comes with great gas costs…

StarkEx for Perpetual Trading


Eight months ago we announced our cooperation with dYdX. Following the announcement, we worked closely with the dYdX team to port their perpetual contracts trading platform to run over StarkEx, our L2 scalability engine.

Supporting perpetual contracts is a major enhancement of StarkEx, as up until now it proved computational integrity only for spot trading. StarkEx will continue to evolve, to support lending, futures trading, and — imminently — NFTs. This is also the first time that StarkEx provides scalability in a ZK-Rollup mode (on-chain data) in production.

Feature Velocity thanks to Cairo

This system was developed using Cairo, our Turing-complete language scaling applications using…

A DeFi-friendly L2 AMM


  • Capital efficiency is a major source of concern when considering L2 solutions for DeFi.


AMMs are an important DeFi tool. Its core qualities — autonomy, composability & liquidity bootstrapping — make…

A Building Block for L1-L2 Interoperability

This post will present the solution that StarkEx offers for supporting Fast Withdrawals: the ability to withdraw funds from L2 to any L1 address, in blockchain time. This solution is independent of the frequency with which validity proofs are generated by the L2 Operator.

The Fast Withdrawal functionality already runs on Ethereum Mainnet in StarkEx (starting StarkEx 2.0, Dec 2020) and powers DeversiFi’s and dYdX’s Exchanges.

The solution below can be applied to a broad range of use-cases, beyond Fast Withdrawals. Let us first describe the abstract need.

The Need

Blockchains allow trustless interaction between two parties, Alice and Bob. Alice may…

StarkWare & Aztec Join Forces to Bring Forward an Innovative License for ZKP Provers


  • StarkWare is announcing the Polaris License, which relies on the immutability of permissionless blockchains.


This post describes the new Polaris license under which StarkWare plans to release source code for its STARK prover; Aztec will use the same Polaris license…


bringing scalability and privacy to a blockchain near you

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